What to do in the event of an acid attack
Incidents involving ‘acid attacks’, where corrosive substances are used as part of a violent assault or robbery, have seen a significant increase throughout 2017 across the Capital.
Burns caused by acid, alkaline or caustic chemicals can be very damaging and need immediate medical attention.
In the event of an attack – call 999 and ask for urgent help.
Immediate first aid
After calling 999, to help prevent severe injuries from a chemical burn:
– try to carefully remove the chemical and any contaminated clothing
– rinse the affected area using as much clean water as possible
Remove the chemical and affected clothing
Try to remove the chemical and contaminated clothing from contact with the skin and eyes, but be very careful not to touch or spread the chemical as this could lead to further injuries to the victim or the person helping them.
Use gloves or other protective materials to cover hands and, if possible, carefully cut away clothing such as T-shirts, rather than pulling them off over the head.
Do not wipe the skin as this may spread contamination.
If the chemical is dry, brush it off the skin.
Rinse continuously with clean water
Rinse the affected area continuously with clean water as soon as possible to remove any residual chemical.
Try to make sure the water can run off of the affected area without pooling on the skin and potentially spreading the chemical to a wider area.
Only use water – do not rub or wipe the area.
Stay on the phone until the ambulance arrives and follow any other advice given by the 999 call handler to avoid further injury.
Treatment in hospital
Immediate treatment for chemical burns in hospital includes:
– continuing to wash off the corrosive substance with water until it’s completely removed
– cleaning the burn and covering it with an appropriate dressing
– pain relief
– a tetanus jab if necessary
Recovering from a chemical burn
Minor burns affecting the outer layer of skin and some of the underlying layer of tissue normally heal with good ongoing burn care, leaving minimal scarring.
Your dressing will need to be checked and changed regularly until the burn has completely healed to help prevent infection.
If the burn is severe, you may be referred to a specialist burns unit, which may be in a different hospital. You may stay in hospital for a number of days.
You may need surgery to remove the burnt area of skin and replace it with a section of skin (a graft) taken from another part of your body.
More severe and deeper burns can take months or even years to fully heal and usually leave some visible scarring. In some cases, the depth and location of the burn may also lead to problems such as sight loss or restricted use of limbs or muscles.
Specialist burns teams include occupational therapists, physiotherapists and mental health professionals who can support your recovery. For chemical burns affecting the eyes, you’re also likely to be urgently assessed by an eye specialist to help minimise the risk of lasting vision loss.
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